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Beshalach: The Yud of Yehoshua

Updated: Jun 23

In parashat Beshalach (Exodus 13:17–17:16), as Israel emerged from the sea, like a newborn nation, Amalek attacked them at their weakest point. Defending the Hebrews, Moshe waged spiritual war above, while Yehoshua waged physical war below,

“Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim. Moshe said to Yehoshua, “Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek.” Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of G-d in my hand. So Yehoshua did as Moshe had told him, and fought with Amalek; and Moshe, Aharon, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. It happened, when Moshe held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. But Moshe’s hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aharon and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady until sunset. Yehoshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. HaShem said to Moshe, ‘Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Yehoshua: that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky. Moshe built an altar, and called its name ‘HaShem Nissi’ (HaShem our Banner.) He said, “HaShem has sworn: HaShem will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” Exodus 17:8-16

Within this passage, there are many incredible secrets and lessons concealed. The text Kol HaTor, written by R’ Hillel Shklover (the grand-nephew of the Vilna Gaon) comments,

“Every act of the beginning of Redemption must be in accord with the verse “walk modestly with your G-d,” as revealed in the words, “place it in the ears of Joshua,” who was in line the line of Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 1:14, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Yehoshua bin Nun was the Mashiach ben Yosef of his generation and his war with Amalek was his mission. The passage read on Shabbat Zachor (the ‘Sabbath of Remembrance’, immediately preceding Purim) illuminates this,

“Remember what Amalek did to you by the way as you came forth out of Egypt; how he met you by the way, and struck the hindmost of you, all who were feeble behind you, when you were faint and weary; and he did not fear G-d. Therefore it shall be, when HaShem your G-d has given you rest from all your enemies all around, in the land which HaShem your G-d gives you for an inheritance to possess it, that you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky; you shall not forget.” Deuteronomy 25:17-19

Who or what is Amalek that its name and memory should be blotted out from under the heavens? Why is Amalek different from other nations who opposed Israel? As said above, these evil forces attacked Israel at its weakest point, allowing the warriors who led the camps forward to pass, and waited to attack the elderly, women and children. If you look at the state of the world today, it is they who are still suffering the most. Amalek is not simply a nation that existed 3500 years ago, it is a spiritual force that is active today. R’ Moshe Alshich says,

“We need to recall that a nation is not really defeated until its spiritual representative in the celestial regions has been defeated. . . Since G’d loves Israel and hates Amalek, destroying Amalek should have been the simplest task for G’d. But He has to destroy its celestial representative first. It is we who prevent G’d from being able to do so, due to our sins.” The Midrash of R’ Moshe Alshich on the Torah, translated by Eliyahu Munk, Lambda Publishers, Volume 2, pgs. 465-466

Dr. Tsvi Sadan says,

“The war “Joshua” wages against Amalek, according to HaGra, happens on three planes: war against “Amalek of the heart,” which is the evil inclination and evil qualities; war against “Spiritual Amalek,” which is Satan, whose central force is at the gates of Jerusalem; and war against “physical Amalek,” represented by the descendants of Esau, Ishmael and the mixed multitude.” The Concealed Light, Dr. Tsvi Sadan, Vine of David, pg. 110

What is your weakest point? Everyone has a chink in their armor, mentally, physically or spiritually. Is that where you get attacked the most? Incredibly, the gematria of Amalek is 240, linking it to the word “Safek,” which means “doubt.” Amalek is doubt. This readily implies that Amalek’s army is beyond the physical world.

Fast forward to Parashat Ki Teitzei (Deuteronomy 21:10–25:19). The sidra opens with the words,

“When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and HaShem your G-d delivers him into your hands….” Deuteronomy 21:10

Yanki Tauber says,

“When you go out to war on your enemies, and G-d will place him in your hands…” No, that’s not a typo. . . The wording of the Written Torah is extremely precise. When a grammatical anomaly appears – such as plural “enemies” who turn mid-sentence into a singular “him”- the midrashim and commentaries will immediately step in to unearth the story behind the story and reveal the hidden lesson.” Yanki Tauber, Our Enemies, Ourselves, [1]

According to the Alshich, the Amalek within is the yetzer hara, the evil inclination, and we must wage spiritual war against sin. It is this spiritual war that Mashiach ben Yosef fights, as the Kol HaTor says,

“(Deut.  32:7) “remember the days of old, understand the years of generation after generation” – This refers to the first Mashiach who fights Amalek in an eternal war.  The L-rd wages war against Amalek generation after generation.  That is the mission of Joshua who was Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 1:44, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Noting that Amalek was the grandson of Esav, R’ Daniel Krentzman explains,

“One of the main aspects of Mashiach ben Yosef’s mission is the war with Amalek (see Kol HaTor, chapter 2.) Amalek is the seed of Eisav and the main continuation of his negative spiritual legacy; primarily, the denial of the belief in G-d and of the eternity of the soul. Eisav denied Olam Habah and Techiat HaMaitim (Bava Batra 16) in contrast to Yosef who remained firm in his belief in Olam Habah and Techiat HaMaitim” (Resurrection of the dead, see Bereishit 50:24.) R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua [2]

The root of Amalek extends before Esav. Amalek’s root actually extends backward to the garden of Eden,

“Now the serpent was more subtle than any animal of the field which HaShem Elokim had made. He said to the woman, ‘Has G-d really said, ‘You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?'” Genesis 3:1

The spiritual representative of Amalek first implanted doubt, and after Adam and Eve ate of the tree, they hid themselves. HaShem asked,

“G-d said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree (המן) that I commanded you not to eat from?” Genesis 3:11

The Talmud comments on this verse, and its connection to Amalek through its descendant Haman, who in the book of Esther attempted to destroy the Jewish nation,

“Where is Haman indicated in the Torah? In the verse: "Is it [hamin] from the tree?" Chullin 139b, Soncino Press Edition

R’ Ari Kahn comments,

“More than the meaning of the name Haman, the Talmud looks for the ideological roots of such evil. How is such a personality formed? The Gemara looks beyond his grandfather Agag, beyond his great-great grandfather Amalek, beyond his forefather Esav, and looks even further back, to our first and deadliest adversary, the Serpent who encouraged man to eat from the Tree of Knowledge, even if – or precisely because – the price was death.” R. Ari Kahn, M’oray HaAish: Parshat Zachor: Purim 5769, [3]

Rebbe Nachman says,

“Amalek is the foremost power of evil. Only G-d can quash this evil completely, and He will do so only in the time of Mashiach.” Rebbe Nachman’s Torah, Parashat Beshalach, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 136

Yehoshua bin Nun

Joshua by Ephraim Moshe Lillien (1908)
Joshua by Ephraim Moshe Lillien (1908)

As Amalek drew his power of doubt from the root of Esav, and from his celestial representative, so also does Yehoshua draw his faith from the power of Yosef, and his spiritual Representative,

“Similarly, Yehoshua, as Mashiach ben Yosef, drew spiritual strength from this aspect of Yosef, removing the “ruach hatumah” (spirit of impurity) from the land. This was achieved by conquering and subjugating the Canaanite kings and nations, removing their power and influence to the extent that he could (see Yehoshua 12.)” R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua [2]

It should not be surprising that Yehoshua bin Nun is linked to Mashiach ben Yosef. Yehoshua himself is from the tribe of Ephraim, a descendant of Yosef. He is appointed to succeed Moshe in the mission of Redemption,

“Moshe spoke to HaShem, saying, ‘Let HaShem the G-d of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of HaShem not be as sheep which have no shepherd. HaShem said to Moshe, ‘Take Yehoshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and lay your hand on him; and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and commission him in their sight…” Numbers 27:15-23

The phrase, “a man in whom is the Spirit” links Yehoshua to Yosef, as it is said,

“Pharaoh said to his servants, ‘Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom is the Spirit of G-d?” Genesis 41:38

Yehoshua was 110 years old when he died,

“It happened after these things, that Yehoshua the son of Nun, the servant of HaShem, died, being one hundred and ten years old.” Joshua 24:29, cf. Judges 2:8

As was Joseph,

“So Joseph died, being one hundred ten years old, and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.” Genesis 50:26

This connects the two. Kol HaTor comments,

“The sound [voice] of the turtledove – This is the voice of Joshua in the line of Mashiach ben Yosef.  Moshe Rabbeinu was in this line until the Torah was given, which is revealed in the words “and Moshe took the bones of Yosef with him” (according to the Gaon’s hints equals 747, Moshe son of Amram in gematria.)” Kol HaTor 2:144, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

The word for “bones” and “essence” shares the same shoresh (root) in Hebrew. Yehoshua had the atzmut (essence) of Yosef. Exodus then describes Yehoshua, the faithful servant of Moshe, as never departing from the Tent,

וְדִבֶּר יי אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתֹו יְהֹושֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתֹּוךְ הָאֹהֶל׃

“HaShem spoke to Moshe face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. He turned again into the camp, but his servant Yehoshua, the son of Nun, a young man (na’ar), didn’t depart out of the Tent.” Exodus 33:11

Kol HaTor comments on the phrase “naar”,

“A youth” — (Gen. 37:2) “and he was a youth” – Four individuals were given the appellation ’ youth’: Yosef, Joshua, Metatron, and David.” Kol HaTor 2:94, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

The title “naar” (youth) is a title for the Angel of HaShem. Kol HaTor continues,

“…the Mashiach ben Yosef from above is Metatron, the Minister of Interior; as is known, Yosef is Metatron.” Kol HaTor 1:20, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Like Yosef, Moshe, Yehoshua, and David, Yeshua is called “naar”,

“When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast, and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy (naar) Yeshua stayed behind in Jerusalem.” Luke 2:42-43

Yehoshua waged the wars of HaShem,

“It happened, when all the kings who were beyond the Jordan, in the hill country, and in the lowland, and on all the shore of the great sea in front of Lebanon, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard of it that they gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord.” Joshua 9:1-2

This verse is echoed by the book of Revelation,

“And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.” Revelation 19:19

 Like Yehoshua, Yeshua stayed in the Temple, was appointed Shepherd over the people, and waged a spiritual war against the impure spirits in the land, and will wage war again to rescue his people from the nations that follow the spirit of Amalek. These parallels open a doorway into understanding an amazing secret.

Yehoshua Below, Moshe Above

As Moshe wages spiritual war above, Aaron and Hur flank him on the right and the left, holding his hands “steady.” While his hands are elevated, Amalek is defeated. This is connected to the serpent on the pole, where Israel looked up to heaven, they would be healed. Interestingly, the word for “steady” in Hebrew is emunah, which means “faith”:

וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּֽמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃

“But Moshe’s hands were heavy, and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady (emunah) until sunset.” Exodus 17:12

The war between Moshe/Yehoshua and Amalek is one of faith and doubt. Faith is the foundation of the entire Torah (Makkot 24a) [3]. This is a war that is fought everyday, in the world outside and the universe within. The prophet Habakkuk says,

“…the righteous will live by his faith.” Habakkuk 2:4

R’ Daniel Krentzman explains that this links to Mashiach ben Yosef,

“Another hint to Yosef HaTzaddik’s personification of emunah (faith) is the pasuk in Chabakuk (2:4): “Tzaddik B’Emunato Yichyeh” “A Tzaddik will live in his faith,” the central characteristic of the Tzaddik, Yosef, is faith. For every negative spiritual force that G-d brings into the world, there is a counter force from the side of holiness, with the potential to overcome it. . . Amalek, the extension of Eisav, is confronted and fought by Mashiach ben Yosef, the extension of Yosef HaTzaddik.” R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua [2]

Rebbe Nachman says,

“We must spread faith through the entire body so that it reaches even the extremities – i.e., the hands. Then, when a person elevates his hands in prayer, he lifts up his prayers. One who prays properly can invoke the power of salvation, such as that associated with Mashiach.” Rebbe Nachman’s Torah, Parashat Beshalach, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 136

Moshe is on top of the hill with the Rod of G-d in his hand. The Zohar says,

“The Rod of G-d is Mattat-ron.” Zohar I:262,

Rebbe Nachman comments on the mateh (staff),

“If he violates the Torah, he drinks from the bitterness of the Tree of Evil, which is the Evil Inclination…but if he repents, it is said of him: “G-d showed him a tree” – the Tree of Life – through which “the water turned sweet” (Exodus 15:25). This is Moshe-Mashiach, of whom it is said: “with the mateh (staff) of G-d in my hand ” (Exodus 17:9). MaTeh is MeTat, from whom comes life and also death.” Likutey Moharan 79:3, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 165

The Zohar reveals the identity of the Rod of Moshe in a jaw dropping statement,

“…the staff given to you will be a Tree of Life – denoting Vav, which is the son of Yud Hei.” Zohar, Exodus, Mishpatim 384,

Moshe is on top of the hill, his hands lifted up, with a wooden beam between his hands. He is flanked on the right and the left, by Aaron and Hur. The book of Luke says,

“When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified him there with the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left.” Luke 23:33

The word “Gulgalta” is significant in Jewish mysticism, as the Zohar says,

וּמֵהַאי טַלָּא דְּגוּלְגַּלְתָּא דָּא, טַחֲנִין מָנָא לְצַדִּיקַיָּיא לְעָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי, וּבֵיהּ זְמִינִין מֵתַיָּיא לַאֲחַיָּיא

“From the dew in this skull (Gulgalta) manna is ground for the righteous for the World to Come, and through it the dead shall be revived.” Zohar, Ha’azinu 117,

The three execution stakes formed three pillars at the place of the Skull, with the Son in the middle. This mirrors the arrangement of the Sefirot and echoes Moshe on top of the hill battling against Amalek. Even ancient believers commented on these parallels in the Epistle of Barnabas [5].

The Death of Mashiach ben Yosef

One of the foundational texts to study the death of Mashiach ben Yosef is Zechariah 12:10,

“And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.” Zechariah 12:10

The Gemara comments on this passage,

“What is the cause of the mourning [mentioned in the last cited verse]? — R. Dosa and the Rabbis differ on the point. One explained, ‘The cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph’, and the other explained, ‘The cause is the slaying of the Evil Inclination (yetzer hara)’. It is well according to him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse, “And they shall look upon me because they have thrust him through, and they shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son…” Sukkah 52a, Soncino Press Edition

R’ Tzadok HaKohen of Lublin (1823 – 1900 CE) writes in his work, Poked Akarim, Letter Hei,

ומשיח בן יוסף המוחה כל זכר עמלק, שיהיה נקי לגמרי, סוף נהרג על ידי גוג ומגוג. ונאמר עליו (זכריה י”ב, י’) והביטו אשר דקרו כמו שאמרו ז”ל בסוכה (נ”ב). משמע פשטיה כאילו ישראל דקרוהו. והיינו דמצד עצמו ודאי היה משפטו שלא למות כלל, רק לפי שלא נהפך למלאך כאליהו, ויש לו חיבור עם שאר בני אדם מישראל להיות יחד קומה שלימה דכנסת ישראל שבאותו דור. והם לא ניקו לגמרי, על כן הוכרח ליהרג לכפר על בני ישראל רבי צדוק הכהן מלובלין זי”ע ספר פוקד עקרים אות ה

“They will look upon him whom they pierced’ means literally that Israel pierced him, although legally speaking he did not deserve to die…since his generation was not clean; however, he had to be killed in order to atone for the people of Israel…and by killing him comes the slaying of the evil inclination from the hearts of all the people of Israel.” Poked Akarim, Letter Heh – cited in The Concealed Light, “Pierced”, Dr. Tsvi Sadan, pg. 49

And yet, the Kol HaTor implies that Mashiach ben Yosef will not die,

“(Ps.  116:6) “I was brought low, and He saved me” — King David, of blessed memory, said this prayer to save Mashiach ben Yosef so that the latter would not die, as explained by the Gaon is his work .  Mashiach ben Yosef is in the line of Joshua bin Nun. Kol HaTor 1:27, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

The one sure thing in the Gemara we are told about Mashiach ben Yosef is that he will die. And yet, in Jewish tradition, we are told that Mashiach ben Yosef will live! The message of the Kol HaTor about Mashiach ben Yosef being alive is perhaps the central principle of the book,

“Yosef is still alive.” The basic approach of the Gaon is encapsulated in the principle “Yosef is still alive,” meaning that the Mashiach ben Yosef is still alive and will live, because, as it is written, every aspect of the beginning of the Redemption is dependent on him…” Kol HaTor 1.6, translated by R’ Yechiel bar Lev and K. Skaist, pg. 5

Salvation – Yeshuah

The book of Isaiah says,

מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלֹום מְבַשֵּׂר טֹוב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיֹּון מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ

“How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news, who publishes peace (shalom), who brings good news, who publishes salvation (yeshuah), who says to Zion, Your G-d reigns!” Isaiah 52:7

This is the beautiful song entitled Mah Navu. Take note that the word for “Good News” is the same as “Gospel.” The word salvation is “yeshuah.” Notice that it says that the feet of him bringing the Good news. Since the word “feet” is plural, this indicates that it will happen in two stages,

“(Isa.  52:7) “he announces salvation” — In that chapter, we find the words “the footsteps of the herald, ” which refer to both meshichim.  But the verse, “he announces salvation, ” is written in the singular form because it refers to Mashiach ben Yosef.  This is so, because whenever salvation during the footsteps of Mashiach appears, it refers to the mission of Joshua bin Nun and the mission of Mashiach ben Yosef.  This is explained by the Gaon in his commentary on the verse “I will bear the cup of salvation.” Kol HaTor 2:81, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Kol HaTor presents an intriguing insight,

“Wherever the term “salvation” appears, it connotes that characteristic of Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 2:2, 100, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Deuteronomy says,

“Yehoshua the son of Nun, who stands before you, he shall go in there: encourage you him; for he shall cause Israel to inherit it…So Yehoshua took the whole land, according to all that HaShem spoke to Moshe, and Yehoshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. The land had rest from war.” Deuteronomy 1:38, Joshua 11:23

In the Siddur, during the Amidah in the Birkat David, we pray,

“Return in mercy to Jerusalem Your city and dwell therein as You have promised; speedily establish therein the throne of David Your servant, and rebuild it, soon in our days, as an everlasting edifice. Blessed are You L-rd, who rebuilds Jerusalem. Speedily cause the scion of David Your servant to flourish, and increase his power by Your salvation, for we hope for Your salvation all day. Blessed are You L-rd, who causes the power of salvation (keren yeshuah, literally “horn of salvation”) to flourish.” The Amidah, cited at [6]

קרן ישועה = משיח בן אפרים = 741

741 = Mashiach ben Ephraim = Keren Yeshuah

Kol HaTor comments,

“…equals Mashiach ben Efraim” [741].  Likewise the value of “horn of salvation,” is 741 in gematria, and, according to the Gaon, this refers to Mashiach ben Efraim…“the horn of salvation” – This refers to  Mashiach ben Efraim, and equals it in gematria (741).  See above (#125) on the aspect “a righteous sprout, ” and further on (#138) on the aspect “a scepter has risen in Israel.” Kol HaTor 1.22, 2:135, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist

Yehoshua’s original name was actually Hoshea,

“Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Nun…These are the names of the men who Moshe sent to spy out the land. Moshe called Hoshea the son of Nun Yehoshua.” Numbers 13:8, 16

While Avraham, Sarah and Yosef (Psalm 81:6) received the letter Hei to their names, Yehoshua received the letter Yud. The letter Yud is on a higher level than the letter Hei. Based on the Hebrew of Genesis 2:4, it is said that HaShem created this world with the letter Hei, and the World to Come with the letter Yud. However, knowing that not a single letter in the Torah can be created or destroyed, where did his new Yud come from? According to the Talmud, it came from Sarah,

“The [single] yod which I removed from Sarai continuously cried out [in protest] for many years until Yehoshua came and I added it to his name, as it is written, “And Moshe called Hoshea the son of Nun, Yehoshua.” Sanhedrin 107a, Soncino Press Edition

R’ Ovadiah ben Yaakov Sforno (1475 – 1550 CE) comments,

“(The verse) states that he was known in his tribe as a man of strength by the name Hoshea (הושע). (Now) the (reason) he is called Joshua (יהושע) is because Moshe our Teacher called him thus as a (mark) of honor, and also to pray for him that he be saved (from the plot of the spies) and that he should save others.” Sforno, Parashas Shelach, Mesorah Publications, ltd., pg. 709

The Artscroll commentary says,

“Since the name יהושע is “piel” (the grammatical intensive form), the Sforno interprets it to mean that not only should he be saved, but he should also save others.”

It is incredible that, according to Kol HaTor, Mashiach ben Yosef is connected to the word “yeshuah.” In the book of Nehemiah, Yehoshua bin Nun is called “Yeshua,”

“All the assembly of those who had come again out of the captivity made booths, and lived in the booths; for since the days of Yeshua (ישוע) the son of Nun to that day the children of Israel had not done so. There was great gladness.” Nehemiah 8:17

When Moshe renamed Hoshea to Yehoshua, it revealed the name of the one who would complete the Redemption and cause Israel to inherit the Land. As Yehoshua was called ‘Yeshua’, so will the Mashiach ben Yosef be named “Yeshua,” as it is said,

“You shall call his name Yeshua, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins.” Matthew 1:21



  1. Our Enemies, Ourselves, Yanki Tauber,

  2. R’ Daniel Krentzman, Geulah Perspectives: Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6 R. Ari Kahn, M’oray HaAish: Parshat Zachor: Purim 5769,

  3. Makkot 24a: “R. Simlai when preaching said: “Six hundred and thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty-five negative precepts, corresponding to the number of solar days (in the year), and two hundred and forty-eight positive precepts, corresponding to the number of the members of man’s body. . . David came and reduced them to eleven [principles], as it is written, ‘A Psalm of David. Lord, who shall sojourn in Your tabernacle? Who shall dwell in Your holy mountain?— [i] He that walks uprightly, and [ii] works righteousness, and [iii] speaks truth in his heart; that [iv] has no slander upon his tongue, [v] nor does evil to his fellow, [vi] nor takes up a reproach against his neighbor, [vii] in whose eyes a vile person is despised, but [viii] he honors them that fear the L-rd, [ix] He swears to his own hurt and changes not, [x] He puts not out his money on interest, [xi] nor takes a bribe against the innocent. He that does these things shall never be moved…Isaiah came and reduced them to six [principles], as it is written, “[i] He that walks righteously, and [ii] speaks uprightly, [iii] He that despises the gain of oppression, [iv] that shakes his hand from holding of bribes, [v] that stops his ear from hearing of blood, [vi] and shuts his eyes from looking upon evil; he shall dwell on high…Micah came and reduced them to three [principles], as it is written, “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what does the L-rd require of you: [i] only to do justly, and [ii] to love mercy and [iii] to walk humbly before your G-d…Isaiah came and reduced them to two [principles], as it is said, “Thus says HaShem, [i] Keep justice and [ii] do righteousness [etc.]…Habakkuk came and based them all on one [principle], as it is said, ‘But the righteous shall live by his faith.” Makkot 24a, Soncino Press Edition

  4. Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 12

  5. Translation of the Weekday Amidah,

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